Its fairest and richest towns – such as Babylon, Susa, Persepolis – are razed to the ground; and only a few ruins mark their ancient site. On this depend harvest, the seasons of the year, the abundance and sterility of crops. Juvenal relates that human flesh was eaten and human blood drunk out of revenge. The Oriental World has as its inherent and distinctive principle the Substantial (the Prescriptive), in Morality. Through its intercourse with so many nations, Syria soon attained a high degree of culture. Ninus reduced under his sway also Babylonia, Media and Bactriana; the conquest of which latter country is particularly extolled as having displayed the greatest energy; for Ctesias reckons the number of troops that accompanied Ninus, at 1,700,000 infantry and a proportionate number of cavalry. Besides the imperial dignity there is properly no elevated rank, no nobility among the Chinese; only the princes of the imperial house, and the sons of the ministers enjoy any precedence of the kind, and they rather by their position than by their birth. (So, to quote another example, Lord Macartney observes that in Canton itself, the Chinese had felt and expressed the need of a more pliable written language.) The accounts of the Patriarchs attract our interest. Here the character of a whole people is bound up with the theological view just indicated. If a Brahmin is asked what Brahm is, he answers: When I fall back within myself, and close all external senses, and say dm to myself, that is Brahm. The Vedas are very difficult to understand, since they date from the most remote antiquity, and the language is a much older Sanscrit. Government officials are educated at the schools; elementary schools are instituted for obtaining elementary knowledge. In his introduction to those lectures Hegel said that there is reason in history because ‘reason rules the world’; hence world history is the progress of reason. One substance pervades the Whole of things, and all individualizations are directly vitalized and animated into particular Powers. But in very deed it is only in Nature that we have to encounter the Incomprehensible; for the being manifest to itself is the essence [supplies the very definition of], Spirit: Spirit understands and comprehends Spirit. The bricks correspond with the description in the Biblical record of the building of the tower. In India, on the contrary, distinctions made themselves prominent; but the principle of separation was unspiritual. This people, namely, attained to the consciousness, that absolute Truth must have the form of Universality – of Unity. Light puts man in a position to be able to exercise choice; and he can only choose when he has emerged from that which had absorbed him. It is forbidden to everyone who desires a long life to step on potsherds, cotton seeds, ashes, or sheaves of corn, or his urine. Instead of stimulating the activity of a soul as their centre of union, and spontaneously realizing that soul – as is the case in organic life – they petrify and become rigid, and by their stereotyped character condemn the Indian people to the most degrading spiritual serfdom. In the organization of these several peoples, the various principles and forms of life have full play and continue to exist together. But it does not follow that because it is a religion, it is therefore good. I wish to argue that, even if it were at one point in time the best entrée to Hegel's thought, it is no longer. The Hindoos will not tread upon ants, but they are perfectly indifferent when poor wanderers pine away with hunger. No independent classes or orders, as in India, have interests of their own to defend. 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