They could pass on their kingdom to their heirs; … Sir James Outram, W. Taylor and others are of the view that it was a conspiracy hatched by the Hindus and the Muslims against the British. This incident sparked off a general mutiny among the sepoys of Meerut. The Revolt of 1857 took place one hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The post-mutiny period also witnessed setback to Muslim renaissance and efforts of modernity. The peasants destroyed revenue records and money-lenders' books, and overthrown the new zamindars, became passive not knowing what to do next. Ashok Mehta in his book The Great Rebellion expressed the view that the revolt was national in character. The power to govern India was transferred from Company to the British crown. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. Revolt of 1857 Causes and Results . These Sepoys were drawn mainly from the peasant population of North and North-West India. Nana's troops were responsible for the massacre at Kanpur. Watch Queue Queue United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. 4. L.E.R. There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. He was put to death after a hurried trial on 15 April 1859. Consider the following statements about Revolt of 1857: 1. The soldiers from Punjab supported the Company. The Rani Jhansi had died on the field of battle earlier on 17 June 1858. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. Leaders like Nanasaheb Peshwa, Bahadur Shah Zafar, Kunwar Singh and the Nawab of Awadh had joined hands with Tatya Tope, an efficient military commander; Rango bapuji, an accomplished planner, and Azimullah Khan, a lawyer and a journalist to lead the revolt. Revolt of 1857 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Further, it is now suggested that the roots of the revolt are traceable to the pockets of relative poverty due to ecological factors such as less fertile soil and severe revenue assessments imposed on arable land caused undue misery to the cultivator. It was planned to begin the revolt across the nation against the East India Company on 31st May, 1857. There was communication gap and they lacked consensus. What is Paika rebellion? Reese viewed it as a religious war against Christianity. Since 1970, the historical perspective has shifted from the study of ‘sepoy mutiny’ or ‘national revolt’ to the examination of social roots of the revolt by understanding specific area studies. The Revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. Indian sepoys and other revolt participants were also poorly organized. The Queen made it clear that there was to be no distinction between one individual and another on the pretext of race, religion, sex and creed. According to Sir John Seale, the Revolution of 1857 was a rebellion of the selfish and not national soldiers, which had no leadership or support.Sir John Lawrence has described it as a military rebellion, and the main reason for this is the fat cartridge. ii) Denial of pension to Nana … Answers:The British made various changes in their policies after the revolt of 1857. Results of the Revolt of 1857: The Revolt of 1857 served as a rude and caustic reminder to the British that they were alien in India and because of the very nature of their domination is colonial and exploitative, could not reconcile the Indians to their rule. Result of the Revolt of 1857 in Hindi. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. As if it is not sufficient, orthodoxy, religious superstitions, communal, caste and religious discrimination began to be practiced by the Indians. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. It is also known as India’s First war of independence. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 Introduction Revolt of 1857 was one the most extraordinary event in the history of India. Patriotism meant love of one's small locality or region or at most one's state. The rebel leaders lacked experience and coordination. It is believed that it is very difficult to make generalization of the 1857 event as the response of the people varied from one area to another and as such it is argued that the revolt of 1857 was not one movement but many. Revolt Of 1857 questions and answers for PSC exams. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3 met with a similar fate. Though the uprising of 1857 failed, it had its importance. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence. This Act of 1858 completed the process initiated by the Charter Act of 1853. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. It was a result of the anger against the government. The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. Modern nationalism was yet unknown in India. Fighting in some places continued well into 1858, but the British were ultimately able to establish control. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown. Though the revolt had failed, historian like Sir Legal Greffin stated that “The revolt of 1857 A.D. swept the Indian sky clear of many clouds”. Military revolt. The Indian Revolt of 1857 Brought the End of the East India Company . On 9 May 1857, they were severely punished for this. Defeated the rebels (Nana Sahib's force) on 17th July, 1857. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The cartridges that were used in the rifles had to be bitten open. They reduced the Brahmins from the army and recruited Gurkhas, Sikhs, Jats and Rajputs of the Punjab. It proved to be a source of encouragement to the National freedom struggle. Topics: Indian Rebellion of 1857, Mughal Empire, British Empire Pages: 4 (1360 words) Published: August 10, 2012. Tara Chand described it as “War of Nation’s Independence” in his book. The reign of Dalhousie had been quite momentous for the Britishers as he had pursued a policy of territorial aggrandisement and extended the dominions of the empire. Indian Rebellion of 1857A 1912 map of Northern IndiaThe Revolt of 1857-59 showingthe centres of rebellionincluding the principal ones:Meerut, Delhi, Cawnpore(Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi, andGwalior.Date 10 May 1857 - 1859Location India (cf. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. Madras, Bombay, Bengal and the Western Punjab remained undisturbed. The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed up in the following words: Firstly, the Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organization to rule over a country. The seed of communal discord planted by the English in India sprouted … Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. In case of the rulers of the Indian states, the crown made categorical announcement that all the treaties and agreements entered into by the East India Company will be honoured and respected and made it clear that no renewal was necessary. The British, after the Revolt of 1857, decided to concentrate in providing a sound and efficien… The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the colonial rule. What began as a fight for religion ended as a war of independence for there is not the slightest doubt that the rebels wanted to get rid of the alien government and restore the old order of which the king of Delhi was the rightful representative”. All the British historians, in particular. The nature of the 1857 event has become so emotive that it gave scope to multiple perspectives. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. The Revolt of 1857 also regarded as India’s Ist War of Independence was a significant event in Indian history. J.R. Holmes expressed the opinion that it was a conflict between civilization and barbarism. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. … The revolt started as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) in the service of the English East India Company in Meerut, a town northeast of Delhi. United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. As a result of such studies, it is now estab­lished that the relationship between land revenue settlement and the revolt is very minimum. The administrative apparatus in India was centralized effectively due to the improvement in communications. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In India, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), The Revolt of 1857 in India: Causes, Spread and Other Details, The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. His salary and allowances were to be paid out of the Indian … If we do not consider any historical event on the basis of its success then the revolt of 1857 A.D. was never a tragedy. Content Guidelines 2. 3. Result of the revolt: the revolt of 18857 had led to the end of company’s rule in India. As a result of the revolt the two forces were united and called king’s forces and one-third of it should consist of the Europeans. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. ii) Queen Victoria issued a Proclamation promising to look after the welfare of the Indian people. He was overpowered and executed on April 6 while his regiment was disbanded in May. It did not spread to South India and most of Eastern and Western India. Essay, Indian History, Revolts, Revolt of 1857, Essay on Revolt of 1857. The Indians too did not lag behind in maintaining social distance. What we notice in this period was abandonment of social and educational welfare measures by the British purposefully and willingly. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. The Royal Princes were captured and butchered on the spot. Religionist, Judicial and Diplomatic Effects: Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1 November, 1858 guaranteed freedom of faith and equal treatment to all Indians. The revolt of 1857 originated with the mutiny of the Sepoys. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. The sepoys were brave and selfless but they were also ill-disciplined. He was to look after the formulation of the British policies in India. Consequently, the British Parliament by an Act transferred the control of the Indian government from the East India Company to the British Crown. In the sphere of diplomatic ties between India and Britain, now there was a change and the British began to show greater interest in the internal development of India than in foreign affairs. By 1859, Kunwar Singh, Bakht Khan, Khan Bahadur Khan of Bareilly, Rao Sahib brother of Nana Sahib, and Maulavi Ahmadullah were all dead, while the Begum of Avadh was compelled to hide in Nepal. The revolt of 1857 was an uncontrolled rebellion against the rule of British east India Company in India. The cumulative effect of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all rulers of Indian states, sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits, maulvis, etc. » The immediate event which angered the sepoys was about the ammunition for the new rifles they had to use. The End of the Company’s Rule. The British crown agreed to provide employment to the Indians in the bureaucratic structure of the times, which was denied previously. It shook the foundations of the British Empire in India and at some points it seemed as though the British rule would end for all time to come. A He was commander-in-chief of the army of Nana … The 1857 Revolt remained concentrated in the Central India and some parts of north-Western India. Any three political causes of the Revolt Were as follows:- i) Annexation of Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur under the Doctrine of Lapse. It was a result of the anger against the government. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. The British who were quite aloof in the beginning realized their mistake and changed their policy with 1861 Indian Council Act. Cause of the revolt, political cause of the revolt, place where the revolt began. The British crown reinstated the Taluqdars of Oudh to their old positions. On 2nd August 1857 … This … 4. William Taylor and Eye. The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule. Privacy Policy3. Sir John Lawrance and Seelay are of the view that it was a sepoy mutiny as the sepoys refused to use the greased cartridges of the Enfield rifles and opposed the move. The Revolt of 1857 covered the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. UG SEM - IV ( CC - 10 ) This video is unavailable. THE REVOLT OF 1857APARNA.P 2. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. Out of the fifteen, eight were appointed by the crown and the rest were to be appointed by the court of the directors. Ans: The ‘Paika Bidroha’ (Paika rebellion) of 1817 led by Bakshi Jagabandhu [Bidyadhar Mohapatra] in Khurda of Odisha. Cambridge UK: … Bishewswar Prasad observes “as the end of the alien rule was the essential object and the chief purpose and in this sense the revolt of 1857 may be termed a national war for freedom, though the sentiment of nationalism in the modern sense had not taken deep roots in the soil of India at that movement”. The British government was now established. It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. The results of the 1857 revolt may be subdivided as: (iii) Religious, judicial and diplomatic effects, and. Contradicting the above views of nationalist motivated perceptions, R.C. Died at Lucknow in December 1857. The Secretary of State for India was assisted and helped by a 15-member body of India Council. The Bengal Army was virtually abolished. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. The artillery section was exclusively kept under the British. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. » The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of … It began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys) employed by the British East India … The major impact was the introduction of Government of India act which abolished the rule of British East India Company and marked the beginning of British raj that bestowed powers in the hands of the British government to rule India directly through … In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. It was to a great extent a popular revolt led by exiled princes and displaced landlords. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. The revolt of 1857 shook the foundation of British East India Company and disclosed their inefficiency in handling the Indian administration. VD Sarvarkar was the first person to opine Revolt of 1857 as the first 'Indian War of Independence'. By the end of 1859, British authority over India was fully reestablished, but the Revolt had not been in vain. The Emperor was tried and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. The British crown gave up the policy of subordinate isolation and advocated a policy of subordinate union in respect of native states. The revolt marked the end of the East India Company’s rule in India. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! History of Freedom Movement in India. Revolt of 1857 in Assam. The infamous massacre related with Nana Saheb took place at Bibi Ghar, Kanpur. Also Read: Storm Centres of 1857 Revolt and their Leaders. Sources and Further Reading . ...The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Sepoy Mutiny.The many names are the result of the conflict's continuing importance to India's national sense of identity. Revolt of 1857 1. The rebel units did not have a common plan of action, or authoritative heads, or centralized leadership. Image Source: bharatmatamandir.in/files/2012/12/Mutiny-of-1857.jpg. Q 8: In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? Savarkar in his banned book. 1857)ResultRebellion Suppressed,Final collapse of the Mughal Empire;end of Company rule in … The self-confidence of the British and their plans for the rapid westernization of India through social reforms were shattered. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. Towards 1857 revolt In 1856, Lord Canning succeeded Lord Dalhousie as the Governor General of India. The “British Parliament” passed another Act in 1858 and exchanged the forces of the “East India Company” to the “British Crown”.. 2. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. Nature of Revolt of 1857. 1. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. John Lawrence, Outran, Havelock, Neil, Campbell, and Hugh Rose were some of the British commanders who earned military fame in the course of the revolt. Because of this the revolt of 1857 failed in India. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence.It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. Why the revolt of 1857 failed: The British had the support of strong government in England. It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company 's army. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Nana Sahib was defeated at Kanpur. Ans: Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857: (i) British Crown took over the control of administration − The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. Which revolt was the first to happen, even before the revolt of 1857, and which is also known as The First War of Independence? The Battle of Plassey was an important stepping stone for the British rule in India as the British had overcome the French in India, and the state of … Contesting the British interpretation as that of sepoy mutiny only, the nationalist historians and in particular V.D. For example, the Begum of Avadh quarreled with Maulavi Ahmadullah and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals. Some Muslims also supported British. The designation of the Governor General of India was changed to Viceroy. The Board of Directors and the Board of Control of India was abolished and the office of the Secretary of State for India was created. Some of them are as follows: The British Crown took the direct responsibility of governance in India. In the post-Revolt period, to maintain supremacy in India, British followed the policy of communal disharmony. यद्यपि … The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Making the “British Queen” as their “Sovereign Paramount” the kings were allowed to pass their land to their own heirs or the adopted sons.. 3. It marks the end of an era of mercantile capitalism and early colonial rule and the beginning of direct imperial hegemony of the British crown. The Revolt was suppressed. Chakravarty, Gautam. The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. One by one, all the great leaders of the Revolt fell. It was the first great struggle of the Indian people for freedom from British imperialism. Roberts also considered it as a military revolt. All the ruling chiefs and kings were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. Political Causes: The British policy of territorial annexations led to the displacement of a large … When the British started tinkering with the revenue system in 1803, the farming community of Odisha rose in rebellion. End of Company Rule: The political result of this great revolt was the end of company’s rule in India. The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). It began when Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of Britain’s East India Company refused to use purportedly tainted weaponry. Most of them fought with such ancient weapons as pikes and swords. The Revolt was suppressed. It was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Companys rule. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. On the other hand, there are also scholars who view the Revolt of 1857 … The following were the results of the Revolt of 1857:- i) The rule of the East India Company came to an end. Tantia Tope escaped into the jungles of Central India where he carried on bitter and brilliant guerrilla warfare until April 1859 when he was betrayed by a zamindar friend and captured while asleep. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. As we have seen, the rapacious policies followed by . The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. The Revolt of 1857 was a major outbreak but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. Since the time it erupted, all historians have been engaged in the futile exercise of labelling the Uprising of 1857 with some descriptive word or other- such as mutiny , revolt , revolution , national Further, the British tried to portray civil disturbances as the actions of selfish vested interests of the landholders and the princes. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. 5 the East India Company were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry. Revolt of 1857 in Assam. Indian sepoys and people were short of modern weapons and other materials of war. The Indian War of Independence of 1857, published anonymously in 1912 argues that it was the first war of Indian independence inspired by the lofty ideal of self-rule by Indians through nationalist upsurge. TOS4. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. Detestation, contempt, ferocity and vengeance became marked features of the British in India in the post-mutiny period. 2. They were also equipped with superior military techniques. In the sphere of judiciary, the Sadar courts and Crown’s Supreme Court were amalgamated into High Courts which were established in the presidency towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. A very disturbing feature of post-mutiny period in India was the growth of social distance between the Hindus and Muslims which ultimately led to communalization of social life and partition of India on communal lines. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. Majumdar concludes that it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the so-called first national war of independence of 1857 is neither the first, nor national, nor a war of independence as it was not preplanned and was limited to certain pockets in North India. It was started by the sepoy of the company which arouses the gathered grievances of the people against the Company administration and of their dislike for the foreign administration. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. The strong opposition to the social legislation especially coming from the orthodox elements in both the Hindu and the Muslim community put the British on the defensive. India's First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. P.E. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. An anxious conscious attempt on the part of the British to minimize the grievances of Indians and to restrict it only to a section of army’s revolt. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857. The uprisings in different parts of the country were completely uncoordinated. At the end, we may conclude by agreeing with Tarachand: “imperi­alist Britain treated India as a satellite whose main function was to sweat and labour for the master, to sub-serve its economy and to enhance the glory and prestige of the empire”. The Company … It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. Results of the revolt: The great uprising of 1857 was an important landmark in the history of modern India. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. Sharing your knowledge on this site, please Read the following pages: 1 had succeeded in sowing the of. 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