A dog whose begging for food has been reinforced 200 times is likely to show greater _ to extinction than a dog whose begging has been reinforced only 10 times. This is because Tamsen tends to give her treats, but Natasha does not. Beth quickly pulled her hand back. This may be occurring in this case because the entry of a babysitter into the house is, for Lucie, a _ stimulus indicating that a treat will soon become available. For example, Spirit, a dolphin at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, does a flip in the air when her trainer blows a whistle. -Knowledge certain period of time must pass. The basic difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that Classical Conditioning is one in which the organism learns something through association, i.e. _ _. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. Test. classical; fear; operant; negatively; fear. 425 People Used View all course ›› Visit Site psychology conditioning Flashcards and Study Sets | Quizlet. From the perspective of this being an extinction process, Laura's behavior can be seen as an example of a(n) _. Image Courtesy: “Classical vs operant conditioning” by By Perey – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia “Operant conditioning … His famous formulation of Law … It was rewarded after pressing the lever 4, 12, 9, and 7 times. In his experiments, Pavlov … Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior (an operant) which utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus, an operant response, and a reinforcer to change the probability of a response occurring again in that situation. Neem accepts Jason's invitation for a date only when she has "nothing better to do." Drinking a soda to quench your thirst is an example of _ reduction; drinking a soda because you love its tangy sweetness is an example of _ motivation. Operant conditioning holds that human learning is more complex than the model developed by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and involves human intelligence and will operating (thus its name) on its environment rather than being a slave to stimuli. On _ schedules, reinforcement is contingent upon the rate of response. Operant conditioning can involve positive reinforcement, such as giving a dog a treat or a rat getting food. Compared to most elicited behaviors, operant behaviors seem (more/less) _ automatic and reflexive. B.F. Skinner: Term. If it only sometimes receives a treat when it begs for one, its begging is being maintained on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. When Asha's parents won the lottery and bought her lots of neat playthings, she became (less/more) _ interested in school. While teaching his daughter the letters of the alphabet, Vern would say each letter as he showed it to her and then encourage her to repeat what he said. Operant Conditioning. is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. 0. Who is the man most closely associated with Operant Conditioning? This can be considered an example of an extinction effect known as _. On a _ schedule (abbreviated _), the reinforcer is delivered following a fixed interval of time, regardless of the organism's behavior. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. As a result, the rat is more likely not to press the lever. The terms reinforcer or punisher refer to the specific _ that follows a behavior, whereas the terms reinforcement or punishment refer to the _ or_ whereby the probability of a behavior is altered by its consequences. An event is a reinforcer if it _ a behavior and the future probability of that behavior _. Operant Conditioning: Definition. In addition to being used to train people and animals to engage in new behaviours, operant conditioning can also be used to help people eliminate unwanted ones. An event is a punisher if it _ a behavior and the future probability of that behavior _. More persistent is to less persistent as (high/low) _ resistance to extinction is to _ resistance to extinction. Search. Flashcards . Edit. He noticed that his dogs salivated whenever he entered the room to feed them. Thank you for being Super. A pigeon pecks a green key on a VI 60-sec schedule, which results in the insertion of a foot-treadle into the chamber. Throughout the rest of the semester, Ahmed was probably (more/less) _ interested in his schoolwork. When Mehgan lived in Vancouver, she dated Mike, who was quite uneducated, and David, who was moderately educated. An operant conditioning schedule describes the stimuli in which a reinforcing event is delivered following and contingent upon the occurrence of … Different response requirements have different effects on behavior. A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement or diminished by a punishment, - First psychologist to formulate the theory of operant conditioning (not the father), A stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement, Removes an aversive stimulus; this is not a punishment, Gains power through its association with the primary reinforcer; a learned reinforcer, - Used to increase a list of acceptable behaviors by earning tokens, States that a reinforcement should mean something to the individual, A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior, A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior, We ma be inclined to engage in______________________ reinforcers, rather than________________reinforcers which requires consistent study or action, A particular response is reinforced every time it occurs, Reinforcing only some responses, results in slower acquistion but greater resistance to extinction, Reinforcement after a fixed number of responses, results in high rates of responding, Reinforcement after average/unpredictable number of responses, very high steady tares of responding, Reinforcement after fixed amount of time has elapsed, Reinforcement after an unpredictable amount of time, low steady rate of response, Process by which a stimulus follows a response and reduces the frequency of the response; opposite of reinforcement, Administers an aversive/undesired stimulus, When an organism learns to perform an operation to terminate an ongoing, aversive stimulus, Similar to escape conditioning but included a CS and is preventive in nature, Occurs when successive approximations of a behavior are rewarded so that the organism eventually produces the desired behavior, Describes the fact that many responses will be combined in a sequence for only one reward, Observed/experienced through someone else and learning happens, Experience has taught them they have no control over what will happen to them, A mental representation of the layout of one's environment, A relatively sudden solution comes t mind to a problem like a "light bulb turning on over a persons head", Studied insight with chimps in the 1920's by putting bananas in hard to reach locations and watched how the chimps got to them, he claims after trial and error that the chimps stopped and reflected on their actions to ind a solution, Desire to perform behavior for ones own sake and to be effective, The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do; undermines intrinsic motivation, Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment. Operant conditioning is a theory of learning in behavioral psychology which emphasises the role of reinforcement in conditioning. When combined with the words reinforcement or punishment, the word negative indicates that the consequence consists of something being _, whereas the word positive indicates that the consequence consists of something being _. In these examples, the teacher is using reinforcement to strengthen the hand-raising behavior and punishment to weaken the talking out of turn behavior. Log in Sign up. Of the four simple schedules, the contingency governing Jason's behavior of asking Neem for a date seems most similar to a _ schedule of reinforcement. Besides that it goes without mentioning that both Pavlov´s and Skinner´s theory differ in terms of their terminology. A _ schedule consists of two or more component schedules, each of which has its own _ stimulus and the last of which results in a _ reinforcer. (A) fixed interval, (B) variable time, (C) fixed time, (D) variable interval, (E) none of the preceding. extinguish; anxiety conservation; CS; extinction. Gambling is often maintained by a _ schedule of reinforcement. Learn. A _ indicates the strength of responding in the presence of stimuli that are similar to the _ and that vary along a _. D) operant conditioning. The dog's behavior of baring his teeth and growling served to (positively/negatively) _ (punish/reinforce) _ Beth's behavior of trying to pull his tail. The chamber forms of conditioning, organisms learn to associate two stimuli and antic…:. Studies at home, she dated Mike, who was quite uneducated and... Reinforcement and punishment decreases it rejected their sales pitches, they were incredibly persistent stopped talking to her evening! That his dogs salivated whenever he entered the room to feed them famous formulation of Law the! Varying interval of time more persistent is to less persistent as ( high/low ) _ for! 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