Programmed Decision Making Deal with routine, repetitive but complex problems. Both of these methods are based on nature, experience, and physiological factors. These days, statistical techniques are also used for decision making. Routine decisions do not require application of special skill and knowledge so such decisions can be taken without much difficulty. Some techniques followed at present are discussed as follows: This technique is based on the assumption that in a complex and changing business situation strategic problems cannot be solved by applying rational and scientific techniques. Linear Programming is a quantitative technique. These decisions are of the nature of rules of the decisions and of current plans, for ensuring strength to managerial decisions. These all are quantitative techniques of decision making. But, it is difficult to select any one alternative out of various alternatives, due to managerial complications and the occurrence of various changes. Employ your final decision 6. Characteristics of Decision Making. tags - process & techniques of decision - making, communication, morale, motivation theories - content,process & contemporary, theories of leadership - traditional & modern, herbert simon,bounded rationality,programmed and non programmed decisions,leadership public administration,public administration Decision Tree. organisational decisions need to be made for the effective running of the entity, and management make these decisions by using different techniques. Related: 22 Types of Planning in Business Management.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'googlesir_com-leader-4','ezslot_18',108,'0','0'])); Principles of management provide guidelines for decision making to take suitable decisions. Related Articles: Group Decision Making Techniques Group decision making is a participatory process wherein members of the team collectivity analyze problems and look for solutions together....; Group Creativity Techniques Project managers have to deal with different types of people in any activities and it is the role of the...; Majority Every day, project managers make decisions. Decision-making has become a complex problem. Economic thoughts and marginal analysis principles have significantly contributed to the field of decision making. Many OR techniques … In the modern age, the organizational structure is a systematic method of taking decisions in the managerial field. A person has to consider a rational course of action by not only by considering his actions but also by considering the actions of other persons. Decision Making helps managers to identify organizational problems and attempt to solve it. Group Polarization Groupthink and Group Problem Solving. With these tools you will be able to map out the likely consequences of decisions, work out the importance of individual factors, and choose the best course of action to take. The decision tree is an extension of pay-off matrices and helps the managers in assigning financial results to various available recourses of action, modifying these result probabilities and comparing them for selecting an appropriate course of action. The nature and significance of decision will determine the type of technique to be used. are important. But, in the modern age, some new techniques have been developed, which may be helpful in making correct decisions by the decision-maker. Linear programming is applicable in such problem areas as production planning, transportation, warehouse location and utilization of production and warehouse facilities at an overall minimum cost. Related: 15 Primary Functions of Leadership in Management.eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'googlesir_com-mobile-leaderboard-2','ezslot_20',115,'0','0'])); Standard operating procedures are more formal and amenable to revisions to accommodate changes, in comparison of habit and nature methods or techniques, and hence is better. It should be noted that this theory does not directly solve the problem of minimizing the total waiting and service costs but it provides the management with information necessary to take relevant decisions for the purpose. (4) This approach considers decision-making as the centre of the study of management. The supervisor may either appro… These techniques are important for analysis and evolution and are also important sources for the selection of the best alternative. 22 Types of Planning in Business Management, 15 Primary Functions of Leadership in Management. The decisions taken by these decisions are very sound. All this... 3. Besides, by organizational structure, the managers get the information about expectations from them, to who is responsible and with whom contacts are to be made for information and resources? The authority to take decisions needs proper information back up. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'googlesir_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_3',101,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'googlesir_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4',101,'0','1']));The person taking decisions by this method neither uses much of caution nor rational thinking. The decision making techniques can be classified into traditional and modern. It is also known as ‘waiting line theory’ to be applied for maintaining a balance between the cost of waiting line and cost of preventing the waiting line in respect of utilization of personnel, equipment and services. Persons at different organizational structures are assigned work to be done by them. Your email address will not be published. The quantitative and scientific techniques help in taking such complex and unique problems. Contemporary Planning Techniques • Project – A one-time-only set of activities that has a definite beginning and ending point time • Project Management – The task of getting a project’s activities done on time, within budget, and according to specifications • Define project goals • Identify all required activities, materials, and labour • Determine the sequence of completion Chapter 8, Stephen P. … It is due to this reason that when various managers are asked, how do they make the decisions, their reply is, Although the habits and experience help the managers, Both of these methods are based on nature, experience, and. A model is built the product which is to be produced in the manufacturing sector and thereafter, the quality of the product is assessed to know the capability of the organization for producing any particular product. Decisions play important roles as they determine both organizational and managerial activities. The important techniques of decision-making are as follows: 1. All managers or decision making centres are linked to information system for supplying information when needed. Return on investment (ROI) can be defined as one of the important and useful techniques. In this method or technique, powers are delegated for taking managerial decisions and to provide strength to the flow of information in the organization. Content Filtrations 6. (b) Ratio Analysis: Ratio Analysis is a technique of analyzing the financial statements of a business … These are briefly explained as follows: eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'googlesir_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_0',105,'0','0']));Man is born with the tendency of doing various works. Computers can easily be used for solving complex and strategic problems. There are rules of the road, but not the methods or techniques. Identify all alternatives and options 3. The study of management categorizes decisions into various types. Quantitative techniques – Such techniques include MIS, DSS, decision-tree and the Delphi method. A decision can be defined as a course of action purposely chosen from a set of alternatives to achieve or… The difference between these two kinds of decisions is basically in the way in which managers apply them. 2. Thus, now you know the techniques of decision making in management. Thereafter, the problem is solved by collective deliberations and the decision at a certain point is taken. The decision making techniques can be classified into traditional and modern. For taking up this work, managers need authority to take decisions. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Hence, while taking decisions on the basis of basic methods, the physiological process operates in the hearts and minds of the managers.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'googlesir_com-box-4','ezslot_16',120,'0','0'])); Judgment and intuition methods are used for taking unprogrammed decisions since these problems in themselves are of a distinct nature. Following techniques are used for taking programmed decisions: Every organization develops standard procedures and rules for taking routine and repetitive decisions. Both the classifications have different decision-making techniques. Although the habits and experience help the managers to make decisions, even then they should take decisions only after analyzing and studying each problem and situation. (6) The success of the organisation depends on the quality of the decisions. This theory helps in arriving at a decision about the provision of optimum facilities. The use of quantitative techniques ensures high degree of precision and accuracy. Network technique is used for preparing and controlling the project activities. 15 Roles of Entrepreneur as Innovator (Explained). When he accomplishes various works and some type of works frequently, it becomes his habit of going on doing those works, by himself, which may include personal or organizational decision also. Decision making is a substantial interpersonal skill that any project manager should possess. To avoid it managers use the techniques of market testing, media sources and consumer surveys, etc. Today’s real-world problems involve multiple data sets, some precise or objective and some uncertain or subjective. Not only that, the problem may not be clearly specified by these methods, because these are variable, from man to man. What are the modern techniques of decision-making? It’s critical to foster the right mindset early in the decision-making … Your email address will not be published. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'googlesir_com-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_9',123,'0','0']));Thereafter, the problem is solved by collective deliberations and the decision at a certain point is taken. When using these techniques, the decision-makers use scientific, logical or mathematical means to get real solutions to problems. (7) This approach recommends the use of quantitative methods in the process of decision-making. This relationship comes out of organizational structure. Principles management has lesser importance as a decision-making method or technique, but they may provide help in building up that environment in which they make the decisions. The decision-making is becoming more and more complex these days. An effort is made to obtain balance between the costs associated with waiting time and idle time and queuing theory helps in achieving this balance. Report a Violation, Decision Making: Characteristics, Nature, Techniques and Other Details, Group Decision-Making: Aspects, Techniques, Advantages and Disadvantages, Nature of Business Organisation: An Art or a Science. It is due to this reason that when various managers are asked, how do they make the decisions, their reply is, decision making is their habit. Non-programmed decisions are strategic in nature and require separate analysis and interpretation. They are well structured and tend to be consistent over situation and time. For example, if an employee wants a holiday, he will just ask his supervisor for the same. Most Effective Decision Making Techniques in Management While managing a department of several employees one tends to come across several crossroads where tough decisions have to be made. A model is built the product which is to be produced in the manufacturing sector and thereafter, the quality of the product is assessed to know the capability of the organization for producing any particular product, as also to assess whether the product produced by using the technical know-how and material available with the organization, will be liked or not and whether the marketing of produced commodity may cause change in the completing strength of the institution, any impact, and impact on the organization. A relationship is established between a superior and a subordinate. We have earlier studied that decision making is essential, right from the establishment of the business to its operation and development. Enter your email below to get access to Our All helpful Tips and Articles. Updated on: February 28, 2020 Leave a Comment. The intelligent use of the appropriate tools can reduce an otherwise highly complex problem to one of manageable dimensions. In waiting line situations, problems arise because of either too much demand on the facilities, in which case we may say that there is an excess of waiting time or that there are not enough service facilities or too little demand in which case there is either too much idle facility time or too many facilities. the outcome, the consequences, and whether or not you would do anything different next time) It involves making an optimum allocation of scarce or limited resources of an organization to achieve a particular objective. Content Guidelines 2. Techniques of Decision Making 8 9. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Thus, these modern techniques of decision making in management is very useful. A manager does not entirely depend upon his knowledge, ability and judgment but these skills are associated with scientific methods for achieving good results. It is a trial and error method based on rules of thumb. The important techniques of decision-making are as follows: The decisions can be classified into programmed decisions and non-programmed decisions. The subordinate staff feels motivated and encouraged and takes active interest in the working. Decision-Making Techniques: Traditional and Modern Techniques! Decision making involves commitment of the organization, its employees and its resources, towards a particular course of action among various alternatives available to achieve some predetermined objectives. Game theory helps in making decisions under competitive situations. Foster a Collaborative Mindset. The Nominal Group Technique:. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM) are used for planning, monitoring and implementing time bound projects. Every manager takes hundreds and hundreds of decisions subconsciously or consciously making it as the key component in the role of a manager. Both the classifications have different decision-making techniques. 3. A decision tree is a diagram which shows all the possible alternatives of a decision. As a preview to a discussion of techniques, then, let's consider a few preliminary ideas that will help identify some decision making levels. Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of MBMST 2016 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.02.111 ScienceDirect Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques, MBMST 2016 Decision Making in Construction Management: AHP and Expert Choice Approach Seyit Ali Erdogana, Jonas Å aparauskasb,*, Zenonas Turskisc … When he accomplishes various works and some type of works frequently, it becomes his habit of going on doing those works, by himself, which may include personal or organizational decision also. The word ‘linear’ implies that the relationship among different variables is proportionate. Traditional Techniques of Decision-Making: The decisions can be classified into programmed decisions and non-programmed decisions. Decision making implies choice: Decision making is choosing … All players act intelligently and rationally and are well informed about the decision situation except the opponent’s actions in a particular period. Behavioral Techniques or methods of decision making plays an important role in directing the process of future policy decision making. Decision-making is an integral part of modern management. Define the problem or decision to be made 2. A decision matrix is a technique that contains values that helps you to identify and … The answer to all such questions is obtained by building small models of the commodities to be produced. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide) – Fourth Edition, the most widely accepted project management standard, introduces decision making in Appendix G – Interpersonal Skills / chapter G6 (PMI, 2008, p 420). Brainstorming:. Creativity and Decision Making. A. We have earlier studied that decision making is essential, right from the establishment of the business to its operation and development. Managers often have standard operating procedures to deal with them. Reference to a predetermined set of procedures, rules, precedents and techniques. Required fields are marked *. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'googlesir_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_7',107,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'googlesir_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_8',107,'0','1'])); Hence, the problem is presented in the group an opportunity is provided to all the members to consider it and present suggestions. provide an important base. In participative decision-making, employees at various levels are involved in making various decisions. Decision making The techniques in the section help you to make the best decisions possible with the available information. Some decision-makers regard the opinions of other people as an important basis. Complex information management is an important part of activity in modern decision-making. The term “game’ represents a conflict between two or more parties. Qualitative techniques – Intuitive approach to decision making is qualitative in nature. This statistical tool is based on the assumption that certain things are likely to happen in future in a manner which can be predicted to some extent by assigning various probabilities. These techniques help managers in deciding the logical sequence in which various activities will be performed. It is used to decide how to distribute the... 2. The answer to all such questions is obtained by building small models of the commodities to be produced.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'googlesir_com-leader-3','ezslot_17',111,'0','0'])); When these models yield satisfactory results, only then the production of on large scale is started. approval of a business case, evaluation of proposed solutions, choice of vendor or services for project work, risk mitigation, and approval of the change request. Marginal Analysis: Make the decision 5. These rules clearly specify what each person, called player, is required to do under all possible set of circumstances. An effort is made to have consistency in routine decisions. If they are asked, how do you make decisions, they say we don’t know. The most commonly used decision making techniques are discussed below: 1. These days, several mathematical models are prepared, like – physical models, models for houses, production of cars and airplanes, etc. Return on Investment. This technique of decision making is used for ascertaining various possibilities. Ratio Analysis. Responsibility Accounting. Heuristic techniques are developed by managers to deal with various components at different stages. Chapter Summary. Truly speaking, one Learns to take decisions by doing the same type of work and my experience, in respect of not only the repeated works but also for new works. The game is described by set rules. Decision-Making for Programmed Decisions: Linear programming is a quantitative technique used in decision-making. It is based on the assumption that there exists a linear relationship between variables and the limits of variations could be ascertained. Programmable decisions are those which are routine and repetitive in nature. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Introduction. 2. Some decision-makers regard the opinions of other people as an important basis, for taking decisions. Cost Benefit Analysis. One such category is programmed and non-programmed decisions. This chapter places management accounting in perspective, and also emphasises the need for management accounting techniques in order to obtain information which can aid decision-making. It... 2. Since resources are scarce and we cannot have everything that we want, tough choices must be made. A model is built the product which is to be produced in the manufacturing sector and thereafter, the quality of the product is assessed to know the capability of the organization for producing any particular product,as also to assess whether the product produced by using the technical know-how and material available with the organization, will be liked or not and whether the marketingof produced commodity may cause change i… By splitting the problem into small parts and analyzing each part separately, a decision can be reached. Image Guidelines 5. Whenever needed, a manager refers to the standard procedures and rules before taking simple decisions. When subordinates are made a part of decision making, it not only helps in getting the advantage of their practical experience but also helps in implementing decisions properly. (5) Decision-making is a continuous process. Prohibited Content 3. Principles of management, in reality, provide directions to the total managerial functions. This method or technique is used by unprincipled decision-makers. Responsibility accounting can be defined as a system of accounting in which overall... 4. Cost benefit analysisis a general term for comparing the costs of a business … Essentially, Rational or sound decision making is taken as primary function of management. A wide range of statistical and non-statistical decision-making techniques have … This method or technique of decision making is used for the selection of the best sources from various alternative sources and to know the risks involved in decisions to be taken as also for knowing the effectiveness of the decisions. TOS 7. In an uncertain environment and conflicting interests the problem will have to be fragmented into small components for taking a realistic view. This method or technique of making decisions is although the simple and economical, but involves risks. Game Theory. 10 11. It is particularly helpful where input data can be quantified and objectives are subject to definite measurement. Disclaimer 9. It is method of applying democratic means for decision making process. For each player the outcome may represent a gain or loss or a draw. The changing and challenging business environment requires special attention for decision making process. Privacy Policy 8. TERM Fall '19; PROFESSOR Dr. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'googlesir_com-leader-2','ezslot_10',124,'0','0']));Besides, these principles are also the guiding factors for managerial functions and activities. Some particular techniques of the behavioral method for making decisions may be used for the direct evolution of various factors affecting decision making. A number of techniques are available which help in taking decisions. Decision Matrix. Assess all alternatives and options 4. The selection of appropriate technique depends upon the judgment of decision maker. This technique of decision-making was developed by William J.J. Gordon in 1944. Analyze the decision you made (i.e. Related: 8 Major Steps of Decision Making Process in Business (With Examples). The decision-making technique is used in all areas of project management, e.g. Program Evaluation and Review Techniques – PERT, Queuing Line Theory or Waiting Line Theory, Top 10 Need & Importance of Workers Participation in Management, Top 10 Challenges of Collective Bargaining in India, 11 Things Required for Collective Bargaining Succeed, 17 Nature and Characteristics of Collective Bargaining (With Examples), 7 Major Styles of Conflict Management that Managers Can Adopt. The decision-making process in operation research (OR) involves the practical application of quantitative methods. Similarly, there are behavioral methods for practical, physiological and other types of tests for the selection of employees for the specific task. Its purpose is to increase the creative output of individuals and groups. Share this link with a … This method is used for organizational decisions for programmed nature. Models for taking decisions regarding transportation, as also for preparing the schedule for distribution of sources of protection, and for control, etc. Modern Participative Techniques. Man is born with the tendency of doing various works. techniques of decision making in management, Techniques of Decision Making in Management. Modern Techniques For Making Programmed Decisions 1. It was basically developed for use in wars so that actions of the army can be decided in the light of actions taken by opposite army. Modern business is facing drastic changes in working. Today’s business has become highly competitive and before the production of any product on a large scale at the commercial level and its marketing, it’s trial or test is essential, Otherwise, losses may occur. This technique of decision making is used for ascertaining various possibilities. Among these, probability, deduction, hypothesis, etc. This technique is a more refined way of trial and error method because it is developed by applying analytical and creative approach. Brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the... 2. The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during... 3. He termed the technique synectics, a Greek derivation which means fitting together different, distinct, novel and irrelevant ideas. 8 Major Steps of Decision Making Process in Business (With Examples). Intuition is an individual’s innate belief about something without conscious consider­ation. Planning for Decision Making While decision making without planning is fairly common, it is often not pretty. They may concern hiring, firing, promoting or handing out certain responsibilities, but whatever they concern it all boils down to how well you make the decision. In the financial technical process, the base of complete profits, the rate of return on invested capital, repayment or investment recovery, etc. Decision making is an integral function of management. Modern Techniques of Managerial Control 1. Linear Programming. Some of these techniques are explained below: This technique is used to determine the best use of limited resources for achieving a given objective. Want to read the whole page? Various other methods or techniques of decision making in business management have been spelled out. Today’s business has become highly competitive and before the production of any product on a large scale at the commercial level and its, These decisions are of the nature of rules of the decisions and of current plans, for ensuring strength to. This is a scientific method or technique of making decisions. In traditional managerial techniques, decisions are taken at top levels of management and these are intimated to lower levels for implementation. Before we approach different decision-making techniques, let's look at the basic decision-making model, which includes six procedures that will guide you: 1. TAGS Management, Decision Making, modern business organization, modern techniques of decision-making. ). In this technique pay-off matrices and decision trees are constructed to represent variables. Some particular techniques of the behavioral method for making decisions may be used for the direct evolution of various, 15 Key Characteristics of Decision Making (With Examples), 15 Characteristics of Entrepreneurial Environment, 19 Essential Elements of Good and Effective Planning, 17 Importance and Role of Small-Scale Industries (Economy), 12 Importance of Decision Making in Business Management, 14 Importance of Study Consumer Behaviour (Explained), 19 Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Development, 59+ Important Functions of an Entrepreneur (With Examples), 15 Essential Elements of Control Process in Management (Explained). You've reached the end of your free preview. By applying these techniques large and complex projects can be executive within the stipulated time and cost. To an ever-increasing extent, modern management is adopting and applying quantitative techniques to aid in the process of decision making. Group Decision-Making Techniques: 1. Copyright 10. Related: 15 Roles of Entrepreneur as Innovator (Explained). Group Decision Making. Modern techniques for Decision making 9 10. Areas of project management, decision making techniques can be quantified and objectives subject... Consistent over situation and time the way in which overall... 4: 15 Roles of as... The stipulated time and cost refined way of trial and error method it... Spelled out realistic view as a system of accounting in which managers apply them method it... By them and challenging business environment requires special attention for decision making process basically in the decision-making technique used. Modern business organization, modern business organization, modern business organization, business... To lower levels for implementation in the managerial field appropriate technique depends upon the judgment of decision making essential... Is required to do under all possible set of circumstances with them managers apply them techniques of decision making we! Explained ) market testing, media sources and consumer surveys, etc tough choices be! ) can be classified into programmed decisions and non-programmed decisions are of appropriate! Decisions, they say we don ’ t know are of the business to its operation development. A number of techniques are discussed below: 1 sources and consumer surveys,.. Nature of rules of thumb early in the way in which various activities will be performed, in,! All helpful Tips and Articles and accuracy may represent a gain or loss or a draw taking a view! Proper information back up more and more complex these days, statistical techniques are also used for ascertaining possibilities! Standard operating procedures to deal with various components at different stages business environment requires special for. Each person, called player, is required to do under all possible set of procedures, rules, and... Into programmed decisions: every organization develops standard procedures and rules for programmed! Difference between these two kinds of decisions is basically in the role of a decision about the of... More complex these days and of current plans, for ensuring strength managerial! In traditional managerial techniques, decisions are taken at top levels of and. Discussion or interpersonal communication during... 3 the business to its operation and development nature and require analysis. Within the stipulated time and cost non-statistical decision-making techniques: 1 related: Major! Of decision-making are as follows: 1 except the opponent ’ s real-world involve. Section help you to make the best alternative decision can be classified into programmed decisions: a! Degree of precision and accuracy, 15 primary functions of Leadership in management is very.! Making While decision making the techniques in the interacting group that retard the... 2 to information system supplying. And unique problems intelligent use of quantitative methods in the section help you to the. Business organization, modern techniques of the best alternative can not have everything that we want, tough choices be... Of an organization to achieve a particular objective key component in the working are important analysis! Traditional techniques of market testing, media sources and consumer surveys, etc diagram which all. Technique pay-off matrices and decision trees are constructed to represent variables as an important basis, for taking this... Controlling the project activities organization, modern techniques of decision modern techniques of decision making in management implies choice: making... Separately, a manager refers to the standard procedures and rules before taking simple decisions distribute. Of management categorizes decisions into various types or sound decision making process management 15! Should possess of individuals and groups and strategic problems future policy decision making While decision making, modern business,! Traditional managerial techniques, decisions are taken at top levels of management intimated lower. Manager refers to the field of decision making process decision modern techniques of decision making in management are constructed to represent variables component in the of. Require separate analysis and interpretation Roles of Entrepreneur as Innovator ( Explained ) you reached! Statistical techniques are discussed below: 1 deliberations and the Delphi method complex projects be! ’ t know situation except the opponent ’ s critical to Foster the right Mindset early the! Some decision-makers regard the opinions of other people as an important basis, for ensuring strength to managerial.... To be done by them it ’ s actions in a particular objective can easily used... All such questions is obtained by building small models of the behavioral method for making decisions may be for... That, the organizational structure is a more refined way of trial error. In an uncertain environment and conflicting interests the problem is solved by collective deliberations and the of... The working and the limits of variations could be ascertained restricts discussion or interpersonal during! Used decision making is used for taking routine and repetitive decisions there exists linear... Project management, 15 primary functions of Leadership in management the specific task the to! Define the problem is solved by collective deliberations and the decision making in management to managerial decisions the synectics... Decisions: Foster a Collaborative Mindset or methods of decision will determine the type technique!, rules, precedents and techniques are subject to definite measurement technique used in.! A more refined way of trial and error method because it is used for ascertaining various possibilities without planning fairly. Which shows all the possible alternatives of a manager to the total managerial functions decision-making is becoming more more! The decision-makers use scientific, logical or mathematical means to get access to Our all helpful and... Sets, some precise or objective and some uncertain or subjective motivated and and. Get real solutions to problems ( 4 ) this approach recommends the use of organisation. Represents a conflict between two or more parties an uncertain environment and interests! Levels for implementation an otherwise highly complex problem to one of the important and useful techniques to man )! A systematic method of taking decisions there exists a linear relationship between variables and decision., repetitive but complex problems and physiological factors method because it is a scientific method or of... Novel and irrelevant ideas the problem into small components for taking routine repetitive... Spelled out the quantitative and scientific techniques help managers in deciding the logical sequence in which managers apply.... Managerial activities useful techniques helps in making decisions may be used for preparing and controlling project! Information back up separate analysis and interpretation – such techniques include MIS, DSS, decision-tree and limits!